loader from loading.io

Podcast 684: Acidosis

Emergency Medical Minute

Release Date: 06/23/2021

Episode 904: Cardiovascular Risks of Epinephrine show art Episode 904: Cardiovascular Risks of Epinephrine

Emergency Medical Minute

Contributor: Aaron Lessen MD Educational Pearls: Epinephrine is essential in the treatment of anaphylaxis, but is epinephrine dangerous from a cardiovascular perspective? A 2024 study in the Journal of the American College of Emergency Physicians Open sought to answer this question. Methods: Retrospective observational study at a Tennessee quaternary care academic ED that analyzed ED visits from 2017 to 2021 involving anaphylaxis treated with IM epinephrine. The primary outcome was cardiotoxicity Results: Out of 338 patients, 16 (4.7%) experienced cardiotoxicity. Events included...

info_outline
Episode 903: Treating Precipitated Opioid Withdrawal show art Episode 903: Treating Precipitated Opioid Withdrawal

Emergency Medical Minute

Contributor: Aaron Lessen MD Educational Pearls: Opioid overdoses that are reversed with naloxone (Narcan), a mu-opioid antagonist, can precipitate acute withdrawal in some patients Treatment of opioid use disorder with buprenorphine can also precipitate withdrawal Opioid withdrawal symptoms include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and agitation Buprenorphine works as a partial agonist at mu-opioid receptors, which may alleviate withdrawal symptoms The preferred dose of buprenorphine is 16 mg Treatment of buprenorphine-induced opioid withdrawal is additional buprenorphine Adjunctive...

info_outline
Episode 902: Liver Failure and Cirrhosis show art Episode 902: Liver Failure and Cirrhosis

Emergency Medical Minute

Contributor: Travis Barlock MD Educational Pearls: How do you differentiate between compensated and decompensated cirrhosis? Use the acronym VIBE to look for signs of being decompensated. V-Volume Cirrhosis can cause volume overload through a variety of mechanisms such as by increasing pressure in the portal vein system and the decreased production of albumin. Look for pulmonary edema (dyspnea, orthopnea, wheezing/crackles, coughing up frothy pink sputum, etc.) or a tense abdomen. I-Infection The ascitic fluid can become infected with bacteria, a complication called Spontaneous...

info_outline
Episode 901: Underdosing in Status Epilepticus show art Episode 901: Underdosing in Status Epilepticus

Emergency Medical Minute

Contributor: Aaron Lessen MD Educational Pearls: Lorazepam (Ativan) is dosed at 0.1 mg/kg up to a maximum of 4 mg in status epilepticus Some ED protocols only give 2 mg initially The maximum recommended dose of levetiracetam (Keppra) is 60 mg/kg or 4.5 g In one retrospective study, only 50% of patients received the correct dose of lorazepam For levetiracetam, it was only 35% of patients Underdosing leads to complications Higher rates of intubations More likely to progress to refractory status epilepticus References 1. Cetnarowski A, Cunningham B, Mullen C, Fowler M....

info_outline
Episode 900: Ketamine Dosing show art Episode 900: Ketamine Dosing

Emergency Medical Minute

Contributor: Travis Barlock MD Educational Pearls: Ketamine is an NMDA receptor antagonist with a wide variety of uses in the emergency department. To dose ketamine remember the numbers 0.3, 1, and 3. Pain dose For acute pain relief administer 0.3 mg/kg of ketamine IV over 10-20 minutes (max of 30 mg). Note: There is evidence that a lower dose of 0.1-0.15 mg/kg can be just as effective. Dissociative dose To use ketamine as an induction agent for intubation or for procedural sedation administer 1 mg/kg IV over 1-2 minutes. IM for acute agitation If a patient is out of control and a...

info_outline
Episode 899: Thrombolytic Contraindications show art Episode 899: Thrombolytic Contraindications

Emergency Medical Minute

Contributor: Travis Barlock MD Educational Pearls: Thrombolytic therapy (tPA or TNK) is often used in the ED for strokes Use of anticoagulants with INR > 1.7 or  PT >15 Warfarin will reliably increase the INR Current use of Direct thrombin inhibitor or Factor Xa inhibitor  aPTT/PT/INR are insufficient to assess the degree of anticoagulant effect of Factor Xa inhibitors like apixaban (Eliquis) and rivaroxaban (Xarelto)  Intracranial or intraspinal surgery in the last 3 months Intracranial neoplasms or arteriovenous malformations also increase the risk of...

info_outline
Episode 898: Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy show art Episode 898: Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy

Emergency Medical Minute

Contributor: Ricky Dhaliwal, MD Educational Pearls: Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, also known as "broken heart syndrome,” is a temporary heart condition that can mimic the symptoms of a heart attack, including troponin elevations and mimic STEMI on ECG. The exact cause is not fully understood, but it is often triggered by severe emotional or physical stress. The stress can lead to a surge of catecholamines which affects the heart (multivessel spasm/paralysed myocardium). The name "Takotsubo" comes from the Japanese term for a type of octopus trap, as the left ventricle takes on a...

info_outline
Episode 897: Adrenal Crisis show art Episode 897: Adrenal Crisis

Emergency Medical Minute

Contributor: Ricky Dhaliwal MD Educational Pearls: Primary adrenal insufficiency (most common risk factor for adrenal crises) An autoimmune condition commonly known as Addison's Disease Defects in the cells of the adrenal glomerulosa and fasciculata result in deficient glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids Mineralocorticoid deficiency leads to hyponatremia and hypovolemia Lack of aldosterone downregulates Endothelial Sodium Channels (ENaCs) at the renal tubules Water follows sodium and generates a hypovolemic state Glucocorticoid deficiency contributes further to hypotension...

info_outline
Podcast 896: Cancer-Related Emergencies show art Podcast 896: Cancer-Related Emergencies

Emergency Medical Minute

Contributor: Travis Barlock, MD Educational Pearls: Cancer-related emergencies can be sorted into a few buckets: Infection Cancer itself and the treatments (chemotherapy/radiation) can be immunosuppressive. Look out for conditions such as sepsis and neutropenic fever. Obstruction Cancer causes a hypercoagulable state. Look out for blood clots which can cause emergencies such as a pulmonary embolism, stroke, superior vena cava (SVC) syndrome, and cardiac tamponade. Metabolic Cancer can affect the metabolic system in a variety of ways. For example, certain cancers like bone...

info_outline
Episode 895: Indications for Exogenous Albumin show art Episode 895: Indications for Exogenous Albumin

Emergency Medical Minute

Contributor: Travis Barlock MD Educational Pearls: There are three indications for IV albumin in the ED Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) Patients with SBP develop renal failure from volume depletion Albumin repletes volume stores and reduces renal impairment Albumin binds inflammatory cytokines and expands plasma volume Reduced all-cause mortality if IV albumin is given with antibiotics Hepatorenal syndrome Cirrhosis of the liver causes the release of endogenous vasodilators The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) fails systemically but maintains...

info_outline
 
More Episodes

Contributor:  Nick Tsipis, MD

Educational Pearls:

  • pH <7.35 = acidemia; pH>7.45=alkalemia
  • If pH low and pCO2 high, indicates a respiratory acidosis
  • If pH low and pCO2 low, indicates metabolic acidosis
  • After determining type of acidosis, check bicarb to determine compensation for acidosis and check electrolytes to calculate anion gap
  • Metabolic acidosis can present with tachypnea (Kussmaul breathing) and hypotension due to loss of catecholamine function and suboptimal cardiac function at low pH
  • Treat with IV fluids and address the underlying cause, limited role for bicarb

References

Burger MK, Schaller DJ. Metabolic Acidosis. [Updated 2020 Nov 20]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2021 Jan.

Cadogan M. Acid Base Disorders. Life in the Fast Lane • LITFL. https://litfl.com/acid-base-disorders/. Published November 3, 2020. Accessed June 23, 2021.

Summarized by John Spartz, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD

 

The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at www.emergencymedicalminute.com/cme-courses/ and create an account. 

Donate to EMM today!