loader from loading.io

Podcast 693: Humerus Fractures

Emergency Medical Minute

Release Date: 07/14/2021

Podcast 733: Nitric Oxide for COVID show art Podcast 733: Nitric Oxide for COVID

Emergency Medical Minute

Contributor: Nick Hatch, MD Educational Pearls: Inhaled nitric oxide or Flolan may be considered in COVID Flolan is a prostaglandin can be inhaled or given IV These medications are classically used for right-sided heart failure, but may be used in COVID Causes pulmonary vasodilation to reduce the resistance against the right ventricle Complications include hypotension and hemolysis, but nitric oxide can be turned off very quickly if needed Be careful and wean patients on nitric oxide for pulmonary hypertension References Lotz C, Muellenbach RM, Meybohm P, et al. Effects of inhaled...

info_outline
Podcast 732: Organophosphate Toxicity show art Podcast 732: Organophosphate Toxicity

Emergency Medical Minute

Educational Pearls: Organophosphates affect the cholinergic system by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase affecting muscarinic and nicotinic receptors Symptoms include lacrimation, salivation, bronchoconstriction, blurred vision, bradycardia, bronchorrhea, emesis, and diarrhea Initially, the patient should be decontaminated to prevent further organophosphate exposure Treatment consists of atropine every 5 minutes, 1-3 mg to start and doubling the dose each time it is given until reversal of symptoms is seen Atropine only works on muscarinic receptors, so nicotinic receptor activation continues...

info_outline
Podcast 731: Fluid Resuscitation in Burns show art Podcast 731: Fluid Resuscitation in Burns

Emergency Medical Minute

Contributor: Chris Holmes, MD Educational Pearls: Parkland Formula: 4 mL x [Total Body Surface Area Burned (%)] x [body weight (kg)] given in 24 hours 50% given over 8 hours and 50% given over the next 16 hours Brooke Formula: 2 mL x [Total Body Surface Area Burned (%)] x [body weight (kg)] given in 24 hours 50% given over 8 hours and 50% given over the next 16 hours 2009 military study evaluated Parkland vs. Brooke formulas for severe burn patients and found the outcomes were the same Guidelines are in flux on which formula to use, but reducing the overall volume using the Brooke...

info_outline
Podcast 730: Alternative Treatment for Gonorrhea show art Podcast 730: Alternative Treatment for Gonorrhea

Emergency Medical Minute

Educational Pearls: Recent updates to treatment guidelines increased the 250 mg ceftriaxone IM dose to 500 mg ceftriaxone IM IM dosing can be very painful, so other methods of administration can help decrease pain for patients Using IV ceftriaxone instead of IM has no significant difference in pharmacokinetics or bioavailability, so it can be considered in patients with an IV already placed References St Cyr S, Barbee L, Workowski KA, et al. Update to CDC's Treatment Guidelines for Gonococcal Infection, 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020;69(50):1911-1916. Published 2020 Dec 18....

info_outline
Podcast 729: Molnupiravir for COVID show art Podcast 729: Molnupiravir for COVID

Emergency Medical Minute

Contributor: Jared Scott, MD Educational Pearls: A press release from Merck introduced Molnupiravir for treatment of mild to moderate COVID-19 The yet to be published study is a randomized control trial at around 100 different sites Reported outcomes were hospitalization and mortality from COVID and mortality from COVID Molnupiravir was found to be twice as effective as placebo looking at these two endpoints (7% vs. 14%) 5 day course of the drug taken twice per day costs $700, but cost-saved from using this drug was $32,000 per patient References ...

info_outline
Podcast 728: Angiography for Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest without ST Elevation show art Podcast 728: Angiography for Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest without ST Elevation

Emergency Medical Minute

Contributor: Nick Tsipis, MD Educational Pearls: Meaningful survival under 10% for out of hospital cardiac arrest The most common cause of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is due to cardiac ischemia Study looked at whether taking patients without ST elevation who had an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) should receive angiography upon arrival to the hospital Took 530 patients and randomized to early vs. delayed angiography after resuscitation from out-of-hospital arrest Found no benefit to early angiography using 30-day all-cause risk of death as the...

info_outline
Podcast 727: Antibiotics for Diverticulitis show art Podcast 727: Antibiotics for Diverticulitis

Emergency Medical Minute

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Classically, diverticulitis is diagnosed via CT scan and patients are discharged home on antibiotics if they are without complication The DINAMO study is a multicenter open-label RCT that evaluated if it is safe to not give antibiotics to patients with mild acute diverticulitis Found no difference in readmission, return visits to ED, pain control, or likelihood of surgical intervention between the group that was sent home with antibiotics and the group without Medical societies have not reached a consensus on this issue, likely further studies...

info_outline
Podcast 726: Ophthalmia Neonatorum show art Podcast 726: Ophthalmia Neonatorum

Emergency Medical Minute

Contributor: Peter Bakes, MD Educational Pearls: Ophthalmia Neonatorum encompasses any conjunctivitis that presents within the first 28 days of life Neonates often receive prophylactic silver nitrate eye drops for gonorrhea prophylaxis, but the drops can cause chemical conjunctivitis Etiology & Timing of Presentation: Silver nitrate conjunctivitis presents 0-2 days after birth Neisseria gonorrhae presents 2-5 days after birth Chlamydia trachomatis presents 5 days to 5 weeks Neisseria gonorrhoeae conjunctivitis is vision-threatening, typically requiring admission and  IV...

info_outline
Podcast 725: Hypothermia in Preterm Deliveries show art Podcast 725: Hypothermia in Preterm Deliveries

Emergency Medical Minute

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Preterm deliveries in the ED can be complex and preventing hypothermia is essential to the health of the baby Recent meta-analysis examined methods for warming preterm deliveries to prevent hypothermia The most effective way to warm the baby is by wrapping them in plastic References Abiramalatha T, Ramaswamy VV, Bandyopadhyay T, et al. Delivery Room Interventions for Hypothermia in Preterm Neonates: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-analysis. JAMA Pediatr. 2021;175(9):e210775. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2021.0775 Summarized by John Spartz,...

info_outline
Podcast 724: Ivermectin Overdose show art Podcast 724: Ivermectin Overdose

Emergency Medical Minute

Contributor: Don Stader, MD Educational Pearls: Ivermectin is a Nobel-Prize winning antiparasitic  used to treat filariasis and onchocerciasis Ivermectin is receiving press due to a scientific study examining ivermectin on COVID-19 viral replication in vitro, but the dosages needed for this effect were much higher than is safe for human use Ivermectin has since been studied in humans with no evidence suggesting it is a viable treatment for COVID-19 Ivermectin is a neurotoxin but at normal levels it does not cross the blood-brain barrier Ivermectin toxicity can include altered mental...

info_outline
 
More Episodes

Contributor: Nick Tsipis, MD

Educational Pearls:

  • Humerus fractures can be characterized as proximal, midshaft, and distal fractures
  • Proximal humerus fracture is the second-most common fracture in elderly patients 
    • Primary complication is with the axillary nerve and axillary artery 
    • Vast majority are managed nonoperatively with a sling, reduction usually not indicated
    • Women comprise 70% of proximal humerus fractures, often secondary to fall with osteoporosis
  • Midshaft humerus fractures are more often managed operatively, but can be managed nonoperatively
    • Primary complication is with radial nerve, look for wrist drop!
    • May require reduction and splinting
  • Distal humerus fractures can include supracondylar fractures and involve the radius or ulna
    • One atypical is the Holstein-Lewis fracture, that can cause radial nerve damage
    • Management is varied depending on the exact type of distal humerus fracture
  • Assess degree of angulation, neurovascular status, and likelihood of compartment syndrome both before and after splint application

References

Attum B, Thompson JH. Humerus Fractures Overview. [Updated 2020 Aug 10]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2021 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK482281/

 

The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at www.emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account. 

Donate to EMM today!