loader from loading.io

Podcast 754: Balanced Fluids vs. Normal Saline, The Battle Continues

Emergency Medical Minute

Release Date: 02/08/2022

Podcast 912: Narcan (Naloxone) show art Podcast 912: Narcan (Naloxone)

Emergency Medical Minute

Contributor: Taylor Lynch, MD Educational Pearls: Opioid Epidemic- quick facts Drug overdoses, primarily driven by opioids, have become the leading cause of accidental death in the U.S. for individuals aged 18-45. In 2021, opioids were involved in nearly 75% of all drug overdose deaths The rise of synthetic opioids like fentanyl, which is much more potent than heroin or prescription opioids, has played a major role in the increase in overdose deaths What is Narcan AKA Naloxone? Competitive opioid antagonist. It sits on the receptor but doesn’t activate it. When do we give Narcan?...

info_outline
Episode 911: Anticholinergic Toxicity show art Episode 911: Anticholinergic Toxicity

Emergency Medical Minute

Contributor: Taylor Lynch MD Educational Pearls: Anticholinergics are found in many medications, including over-the-counter remedies Medications include: Diphenhydramine Tricyclic antidepressants like amitriptyline Atropine Antipsychotics like olanzapine Antispasmodics - dicyclomine Jimsonweed Muscaria mushrooms Mechanism of action involves competitive antagonism of the muscarinic receptor Symptomatic presentation is easily remembered via the mnemonic: Dry as a bone - anhidrosis due to cholinergic antagonism at sweat glands Red as a beet - cutaneous vasodilation...

info_outline
Episode 910: Cellulitis Recovery Timeline show art Episode 910: Cellulitis Recovery Timeline

Emergency Medical Minute

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: How fast does cellulitis recover? A recent prospective cohort study took a look at this question. The study included 300 adults with cellulitis (excluding those with peri-orbital cellulitis or abscesses) in two emergency departments in Queensland, Australia. They collected data from initial and follow-up surveys at 3, 7, and 14 days, and compared clinician and patient assessments at day 14. Improvement was fastest between day 0 and day 3, with gradual progress thereafter. At day 14, many still had skin redness and swelling, though...

info_outline
Episode 909: Prehospital Blood Pressure Management in Suspected Stroke show art Episode 909: Prehospital Blood Pressure Management in Suspected Stroke

Emergency Medical Minute

Contributor: Aaron Lessen MD Educational Pearls: A recent study assessed EMS treatment of high blood pressure in the field 2404 patients randomized to prehospital treatment (1205)  vs. usual care (1199) Included patients with prehospital BP greater than 150 mm Hg The treatment arm’s BP goal was 130-140 mm Hg The primary efficacy outcome was functional status 90 days out Stroke was confirmed by imaging upon hospital arrival On arrival, the mean SBP of the treatment arm was 159 mm Hg compared with 170 mm Hg in the usual care group No significant difference in...

info_outline
Episode 908: Sympathomimetic Drugs show art Episode 908: Sympathomimetic Drugs

Emergency Medical Minute

Contributor: Taylor Lynch MD Educational Pearls: Overview: Sympathomimetic drugs mimic the fight or flight response, affecting monoamines such as dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine Limited therapeutic use, often abused. Types: Amphetamines: Methamphetamine, Adderall, Ritalin, Vyvanse MDMA (Ecstasy) Cocaine (Both hydrochloride salt & free based crack cocaine) Theophylline (Asthma treatment) Ephedrine (For low blood pressure) BZP, Oxymetazoline (Afrin), Pseudoephedrine (Sudafed) MAO Inhibitors (treatment-resistant depression) Mechanisms: Act on adrenergic and dopaminergic...

info_outline
Episode 907: Wide-Complex Tachycardia show art Episode 907: Wide-Complex Tachycardia

Emergency Medical Minute

Contributor: Travis Barlock MD Educational Pearls: Wide-complex tachycardia is defined as a heart rate > 100 BPM with a QRS width > 120 milliseconds Wide-complex tachycardia of supraventricular origin is known as SVT with aberrancy Aberrancy is due to bundle branch blocks Mostly benign Treated with adenosine or diltiazem Wide-complex tachycardia of ventricular origin is also known as VTach Originates from ventricular myocytes, which are poor inherent pacemakers Dangerous rhythm that can lead to death Treated with amiodarone or lidocaine 80% of wide-complex...

info_outline
Episode 906: Case Study of Hypernatremia show art Episode 906: Case Study of Hypernatremia

Emergency Medical Minute

Contributor: Aaron Lessen MD Educational Pearls: The case: A gentleman came in from a nursing home with symptoms concerning for sepsis. He was hypotensive, hypoxic, febrile, and mentally altered. His past medical history included previous strokes which had left him with deficits for which he required a feeding tube. Initial workup included some point of care labs which revealed a sodium of 165 mEq/L (normal range 135-145) Hypernatremia What causes it? Dehydration, from insufficient fluid intake. This might happen in individuals who cannot drink water independently, such as...

info_outline
Episode 905: Oseltamivir (Tamiflu) for Influenza show art Episode 905: Oseltamivir (Tamiflu) for Influenza

Emergency Medical Minute

Contributor: Aaron Lessem MD Educational Pearls:  Oseltamivir (Tamiflu) is an antiviral medication used commonly to treat influenza Trials show that the medication reduces the duration of illness by less than 1 day (~16 hours in one systematic review) Benefit only occurs if taken within 48 hours of symptom onset Must be taken for 5 days A 2024 meta-analysis reviewed 15 randomized-controlled trials for the risk of hospitalization No reduction in hospitalizations with oseltamivir in patients over the age of 12 No difference in high-risk patients over the age of 65 or those...

info_outline
Episode 904: Cardiovascular Risks of Epinephrine show art Episode 904: Cardiovascular Risks of Epinephrine

Emergency Medical Minute

Contributor: Aaron Lessen MD Educational Pearls: Epinephrine is essential in the treatment of anaphylaxis, but is epinephrine dangerous from a cardiovascular perspective? A 2024 study in the Journal of the American College of Emergency Physicians Open sought to answer this question. Methods: Retrospective observational study at a Tennessee quaternary care academic ED that analyzed ED visits from 2017 to 2021 involving anaphylaxis treated with IM epinephrine. The primary outcome was cardiotoxicity Results: Out of 338 patients, 16 (4.7%) experienced cardiotoxicity. Events included...

info_outline
Episode 903: Treating Precipitated Opioid Withdrawal show art Episode 903: Treating Precipitated Opioid Withdrawal

Emergency Medical Minute

Contributor: Aaron Lessen MD Educational Pearls: Opioid overdoses that are reversed with naloxone (Narcan), a mu-opioid antagonist, can precipitate acute withdrawal in some patients Treatment of opioid use disorder with buprenorphine can also precipitate withdrawal Opioid withdrawal symptoms include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and agitation Buprenorphine works as a partial agonist at mu-opioid receptors, which may alleviate withdrawal symptoms The preferred dose of buprenorphine is 16 mg Treatment of buprenorphine-induced opioid withdrawal is additional buprenorphine Adjunctive...

info_outline
 
More Episodes

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD

Educational Pearls:

  • Normal saline is thought to interfere with renal function and cause an acidosis and balanced fluids (like lactated ringers) are a better option
  • The SALT-ED trial and SMART trial showed a small benefit with renal injury and need for dialysis using balanced fluid in critically ill patients
  • Recent multicenter RCT in Brazil evaluated balanced fluids versus normal saline and looked at 90-day mortality
  • Found no difference in 90-day mortality or secondary outcomes like renal function
  • PLUS trial is currently being done in Australia and New Zealand to further evaluate fluid choice
  • Larger trials don’t show a major difference at this point, keep an eye out for future trials

References

Semler MW, Wanderer JP, Ehrenfeld JM, et al. Balanced Crystalloids versus Saline in the Intensive Care Unit. The SALT Randomized Trial. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2017;195(10):1362-1372. doi:10.1164/rccm.201607-1345OC

 

Semler MW, Self WH, Wanderer JP, et al. Balanced Crystalloids versus Saline in Critically Ill Adults. N Engl J Med. 2018;378(9):829-839. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1711584

Zampieri FG, Machado FR, Biondi RS, et al. Effect of Intravenous Fluid Treatment With a Balanced Solution vs 0.9% Saline Solution on Mortality in Critically Ill Patients: The BaSICS Randomized Clinical Trial [published online ahead of print, 2021 Aug 10]. JAMA. 2021;326(9):1-12. doi:10.1001/jama.2021.11684

https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02721654

Summarized by John Spartz, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD

 

The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account. 

Donate to EMM today!