loader from loading.io

Podcast 884: Nerve Blocks

Emergency Medical Minute

Release Date: 01/01/2024

Episode 898: Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy show art Episode 898: Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy

Emergency Medical Minute

Contributor: Ricky Dhaliwal, MD Educational Pearls: Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, also known as "broken heart syndrome,” is a temporary heart condition that can mimic the symptoms of a heart attack, including troponin elevations and mimic STEMI on ECG. The exact cause is not fully understood, but it is often triggered by severe emotional or physical stress. The stress can lead to a surge of catecholamines which affects the heart (multivessel spasm/paralysed myocardium). The name "Takotsubo" comes from the Japanese term for a type of octopus trap, as the left ventricle takes on a...

info_outline
Episode 897: Adrenal Crisis show art Episode 897: Adrenal Crisis

Emergency Medical Minute

Contributor: Ricky Dhaliwal MD Educational Pearls: Primary adrenal insufficiency (most common risk factor for adrenal crises) An autoimmune condition commonly known as Addison's Disease Defects in the cells of the adrenal glomerulosa and fasciculata result in deficient glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids Mineralocorticoid deficiency leads to hyponatremia and hypovolemia Lack of aldosterone downregulates Endothelial Sodium Channels (ENaCs) at the renal tubules Water follows sodium and generates a hypovolemic state Glucocorticoid deficiency contributes further to hypotension...

info_outline
Podcast 896: Cancer-Related Emergencies show art Podcast 896: Cancer-Related Emergencies

Emergency Medical Minute

Contributor: Travis Barlock, MD Educational Pearls: Cancer-related emergencies can be sorted into a few buckets: Infection Cancer itself and the treatments (chemotherapy/radiation) can be immunosuppressive. Look out for conditions such as sepsis and neutropenic fever. Obstruction Cancer causes a hypercoagulable state. Look out for blood clots which can cause emergencies such as a pulmonary embolism, stroke, superior vena cava (SVC) syndrome, and cardiac tamponade. Metabolic Cancer can affect the metabolic system in a variety of ways. For example, certain cancers like bone...

info_outline
Episode 895: Indications for Exogenous Albumin show art Episode 895: Indications for Exogenous Albumin

Emergency Medical Minute

Contributor: Travis Barlock MD Educational Pearls: There are three indications for IV albumin in the ED Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) Patients with SBP develop renal failure from volume depletion Albumin repletes volume stores and reduces renal impairment Albumin binds inflammatory cytokines and expands plasma volume Reduced all-cause mortality if IV albumin is given with antibiotics Hepatorenal syndrome Cirrhosis of the liver causes the release of endogenous vasodilators The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) fails systemically but maintains...

info_outline
Episode 894: DKA and HHS show art Episode 894: DKA and HHS

Emergency Medical Minute

Contributor: Ricky Dhaliwal, MD Educational Pearls: What are DKA and HHS? DKA (Diabetic Ketoacidosis) and HHS (Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic State) are both acute hyperglycemic states. DKA More common in type 1 diabetes. Triggered by decreased circulating insulin. The body needs energy but cannot use glucose because it can’t get it into the cells. This leads to increased metabolism of free fatty acids and the increased production of ketones. The buildup of ketones causes acidosis. The kidneys attempt to compensate for the acidosis by increasing diuresis. These patients...

info_outline
Episode 893: Home Treatments for Button Battery Ingestion show art Episode 893: Home Treatments for Button Battery Ingestion

Emergency Medical Minute

Contributor: Aaron Lessen MD Educational Pearls: Button batteries cause alkaline corrosion and erosion of the esophagus when swallowed Children swallow button batteries, which create a medical emergency as they can perforate the esophagus A recent study compared various home remedies as first-aid therapy for button battery ingestion Honey, jam, normal saline, Coca-Cola, orange juice, milk, and yogurt The study used a porcine esophageal model to assess resistance to alkalinization with the different home remedies Honey and jam demonstrated a significantly lower esophageal tissue...

info_outline
Episode 892: Tourniquets show art Episode 892: Tourniquets

Emergency Medical Minute

Contributor: Ricky Dhaliwal, MD Educational Pearls: What can you do to control bleeding in a penetrating wound? Apply direct pinpoint pressure on the wound as well as proximal to the wound. Build a compression dressing. How do you build a compression dressing? Think about building an upside-down pyramid with the gauze. Consider coagulation agents such as an absorbent gelatin sponge material, microporous polysaccharide hemispheres, oxidized cellulose, fibrin sealants, topical thrombin, or tranexamic acid. What are the indications to use a tourniquet? The Stop The Bleed campaign...

info_outline
Pharmacy Phriday #11: Riddles, Medical Jargon, NNT, and Time Travel show art Pharmacy Phriday #11: Riddles, Medical Jargon, NNT, and Time Travel

Emergency Medical Minute

Contributors: Kali Olson PharmD, Travis Barlock MD, Jeffrey Olson MS2 Summary: In this episode of Pharmacy Phriday, Dr. Kali Olson joins Dr. Travis Barlock and Jeffrey Olson in studio to discuss a variety of interesting topics in the form of a segment show. Dr. Kali Olson earned her Doctorate of Pharmacy from the University of Colorado, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and completed a PGY1 residency at Detroit Receiving Hospital and a PGY2 residency in Emergency Medicine at Denver Health. She now works as an Emergency Medicine Pharmacist at Denver Health.  In segment one of the show, Kali and...

info_outline
Episode 891: Hypothermia show art Episode 891: Hypothermia

Emergency Medical Minute

Contributor: Taylor Lynch MD Educational Pearls Hypothermia is defined as a core body temperature less than 35 degrees Celsius or less than 95 degrees Fahrenheit  Mild Hypothermia: 32-35 degrees Celsius Presentation: alert, shivering, tachycardic, and cold diuresis Management: Passive rewarming i.e. remove wet clothing and cover the patient with blankets or other insulation Moderate Hypothermia: 28-32 degrees Celsius Presentation: Drowsiness, lack of shivering, bradycardia, hypotension Management: Active external rewarming Severe Hypothermia: 24-28 degrees Celsius ...

info_outline
Podcast 890: Outdoor Cold Air for Croup show art Podcast 890: Outdoor Cold Air for Croup

Emergency Medical Minute

Contributor: Jared Scott MD Educational Pearls: Croup is a respiratory condition typically caused by a viral infection (e.g., parainfluenza). The disease is characterized by inflammation of the larynx and trachea, which often leads to a distinctive barking cough. A common treatment for croup is the powerful steroid dexamethasone, but it can take up to 30 minutes to start working. A folk remedy for croup is to take the afflicted child outside in the cold to help them breathe better, but does it really work? A 2023 study in Switzerland, published in the Journal of Pediatrics,...

info_outline
 
More Episodes

Contributor: Meghan Hurley MD

Educational Pearls:

What is a nerve block?

  • A nerve block is the medical procedure of injecting anesthetic into the area around a nerve to block pain signals. 

  • They are typically done with ultrasound guidance.

Are nerve blocks effective?

  • Most of the information we have about nerve blocks is extrapolated from fascia iliaca blocks. This nerve block targets the fascia iliaca compartment, which contains the femoral, lateral femoral cutaneous, and obturator nerves. These blocks are commonly done for hip fractures to help stabilize the patient while awaiting surgical repair.

  • The data for these types of injections is strong. They decrease pain, they decrease total morphine equivalents needed while a patient is in the hospital, they help mobilize patients earlier and start physical therapy earlier, and they help patients leave the hospital about a day earlier.

What is an example of an agent that can be used?

  • Bupivacaine. A long acting amide-type local anesthetic. It works best when paired with epinephrine which causes local vasoconstriction and allows the bupivaciaine to bathe the nerve for longer. It gives 5-15 hours of anesthesia (complete sensation loss), and up to 30 hours of analgesia (pain loss).

What’s an example of another block that can be done?

  • An Erector Spinae Plane (ESP) block is performed in the paraspinal fascial plane in the back. This can be used for pain around the ribs and before a variety of medical procedures including a Nuss procedure, thoracotomies, percutaneous nephrolithotomies, ventral hernia repairs, and even lumbar fusions.

What is one potential complication of a nerve block?

  • Local Anesthetic Systemic Toxicity (LAST).

  • There are three ways this can happen:

    • 1) Using too much total anesthetic (Maximum dose of bupivacaine is 2.5 mg/kg).

    • 2) Too much anesthetic is injected into a confined space which then gets absorbed into the venous system.

    • 3) Injecting directly into the vasculature by mistake.

What are the signs that this complication has occurred?

  • Perioral tingling

  • Stupor

  • Coma

  • Seizures

What can that cause?

  • Cardiovascular collapse

How is that treated?

  • Intralipid AKA Soybean Oil, or “lipid emulsion” should be given as a bolus followed by a drip. These patients need to be admitted.

    • Bolus 1.5 ml/kg (lean body mass) intravenously over 1 min (max ~100 ml).

    • Continuous infusion at 0.25 mL/kg/min. Max dosing in the first 30 minutes is around 100 ml/kg.

  • Fun fact: Patients being treated for LAST with intralipid cannot undergo general anesthesia because the intralipid will impact the anesthesia drugs.

References

  1. Long B, Chavez S, Gottlieb M, Montrief T, Brady WJ. Local anesthetic systemic toxicity: A narrative review for emergency clinicians. Am J Emerg Med. 2022 Sep;59:42-48. doi: 10.1016/j.ajem.2022.06.017. Epub 2022 Jun 13. PMID: 35777259.

  2. Carvalho Júnior LH, Temponi EF, Paganini VO, Costa LP, Soares LF, Gonçalves MB. Reducing the length of hospital stay after total knee arthroplasty: influence of femoral and sciatic nerve block. Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992). 2015 Jan-Feb;61(1):40-3. doi: 10.1590/1806-9282.61.01.040. Epub 2015 Jan 1. PMID: 25909207.

  3. Jain N, Kotulski C, Al-Hilli A, Yeung-Lai-Wah P, Pluta J, Heegeman D. Fascia Iliaca Block in Hip and Femur Fractures to Reduce Opioid Use. J Emerg Med. 2022 Jul;63(1):1-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jemermed.2022.04.018. Epub 2022 Aug 4. PMID: 35933265.

  4. Kot P, Rodriguez P, Granell M, Cano B, Rovira L, Morales J, Broseta A, Andrés J. The erector spinae plane block: a narrative review. Korean J Anesthesiol. 2019 Jun;72(3):209-220. doi: 10.4097/kja.d.19.00012. Epub 2019 Mar 19. PMID: 30886130; PMCID: PMC6547235.

  5. Lee SH, Sohn JT. Mechanisms underlying lipid emulsion resuscitation for drug toxicity: a narrative review. Korean J Anesthesiol. 2023 Jun;76(3):171-182. doi: 10.4097/kja.23031. Epub 2023 Jan 26. PMID: 36704816; PMCID: PMC10244607.

  6. Weinberg, Guy. LipidRescue™ Resuscitation. http://www.lipidrescue.org/

Summarized by Jeffrey Olson MS2 | Edited by Jorge Chalit, OMSII